The nettle

The nettle

Tea with nettle and sale

Nettle tea is characterized by being a particularly useful drink when it is necessary to carry out a draining activity and to ensure the carrying out of an invigorating action against the immune system.

Of course, you can find numerous products such as nettle tea in the main herbalists and pharmacies.

In some cases, it must be emphasized, there are specialized sections for natural products in some supermarkets and you can try to look for some nettle-based components.

In any case, it must be highlighted how nettle tea can also be easily found through that communication channel that responds to the name of the internet: in fact, on the web we can find a huge number of online stores specialized in natural and herbal products. .

Browsing on these online stores, the customer has the opportunity to certainly find more convenient products compared to many brands on sale at normal herbalists, even if he will have to pay the utmost attention to the quality of the products he will buy; certainly, the practicality and convenience of the online purchase service is remarkable, also in terms of the breadth of the offer made available to customers.


Recipe

During the summer season, in particular, it may happen to feel the need to drink some refreshing drink to counteract the heat and high temperatures.

To make an excellent nettle tea, which is a drink that really gives a refreshing and well-being sensation, we must first of all get the leaves of the nettle plant.

In case we do not want to buy them at any herbalist's shop or specialized shop for natural products, the advice is to pay the utmost attention while picking them, since they are covered with stinging hair.

Once we have collected, we must also get an orange peel and a lemon, while we wash everything we have collected.

Let the nettle leaves dry, putting them in the oven for a few minutes (if they weren't already), and then use them as if they were real tea bags.

It is a particularly useful solution for carrying out a draining activity against your body, but also for properly strengthening the immune system.


Infusions and decoctions

Among the other preparations that can guarantee the carrying out of beneficial actions for the human body we undoubtedly also find infusions and decoctions made with nettle leaves.

In the first case, it is a solution that is very reminiscent of that of nettle tea, in which you need to guarantee a minimum of freshness and purification to your body while waiting for the arrival of the summer season or to combat the heat accompanying this time of year.

In this sense, the nettle infusion is particularly effective, especially when two teaspoons of honey are added as a sweetener at the end of its preparation, allowing the human body to purify itself optimally if the infusion is consumed for at least twenty days.

The decoction based on nettle, on the contrary, is characterized by carrying out an important action in terms of the excessive quantity of sebum produced, since this latter disorder can be the triggering cause of pathologies such as acne.

The nettle decoction must always be taken during the morning and above all it must be drunk on an empty stomach.


The nettle: Use

Nettle is also used in the culinary field, essentially in the preparation of numerous dishes, such as omelettes, ravioli and risotto.

We must not forget how nettle powder can also be usefully used for the preparation of some dishes, since it can be easily spread on foods.

Nettle is great when you plan to make a spinach-based dish, but it is also quite pleasant with cooked salad.

Once the nettle is cooked, of course, it will no longer have the classic tingling that is typical of the leaves of the plant: in fact, after being boiled, the nettle becomes an extremely soft food.

In addition, nettle can also be usefully used to combat oily skin, since by preparing traditional fumigations, pouring dried nettle into a saucepan containing about 1500 ml of boiling water, we will be able to obtain excellent results.

Another particularly widespread use is that which refers to the beneficial action against hair loss and dandruff: in this case there are also many products on the market that are able to undoubtedly carry out a positive action on the scalp, even for what it's about a reinvigoration activity.

Finally, nettle can also be useful for fighting acne and all those diseases that frequently affect the skin: in these cases, it is advisable to prepare an excellent nettle infusion.



Objective: To test the hypothesis that in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the outcome of drug therapy with finasteride may be predictable from the baseline prostate volume and that positive clinical effects might be expected only in patients with prostate volumes of> 40 mL, using a subgroup analysis of results from a previously reported clinical trial of finasteride and phytotherapy.

Patients and methods: A subgroup of 431 patients was analyzed from a randomized, multicentre, double-blind clinical trial involving 543 patients with the early stages of BPH. Patients received a fixed combination of extracts of saw palmetto fruit (Serenoa repens) and nettle root (Urtica dioica) (PRO 160/120) or the synthetic 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. The patients assessed had valid ultrasonographic measurements and baseline prostate volumes of either 40 mL. All 516 patients were included in the safety analysis. The results of the original trial showed equivalent efficacy for both treatments.

Results: The mean (SD) maximum urinary flow (the main outcome variable) increased (from baseline values) after 24 weeks by 1.9 (5.6) mL / s with PRO 160/120 and by 2.4 (6.3) mL / s with finasteride. There were no statistically significant group differences (P = 0.52). The subgroups with small prostates (40 mL were similar, at 2.3 (6.1) and 2. 2 (5.3) mL / s, respectively. There were improvements in the International Prostate Symptom Score in both treatment groups, with no statistically significant differences. subgroup analysis showed slightly better results for voiding symptoms in the patients with prostates of> 40 mL, but there were also improvements in the subgroup with smaller prostates. The safety analysis showed that more patients in the finasteride group reported adverse events and also there were more adverse events in this group than in patients treated with PRO 160/120.

Conclusion: The present analysis showed that the efficacy of both PRO 160/120 and finasteride was equivalent and unrelated to prostate volume. However, PRO 160/120 had better tolerability than finasteride.


Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Taxonomy
  • 3 Distribution
  • 4 Ecology
  • 5 Nettle sting mechanism and treatment
  • 6 Influence on language and culture
  • 7 Uses
    • 7.1 Culinary use
      • 7.1.1 Competitive eating
    • 7.2 Beverage use
    • 7.3 Traditional medicine
    • 7.4 Chastisement
    • 7.5 Textiles and fibers
    • 7.6 Feed
      • 7.6.1 Nutrient contents
      • 7.6.2 Poultry: Egg yolk coloring in laying hens
      • 7.6.3 Ruminants
    • 7.7 Gardening
  • 8 Field cultivation
    • 8.1 Sowing and planting
  • 9 Greenhouse cultivation
  • 10 Etymology
  • 11 Gallery
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 Further reading
  • 15 External links

Urtica dioica is a dioecious, herbaceous, perennial plant, 1 to 2 m (3 to 7 ft) tall in the summer and dying down to the ground in winter. [3] It has widely spreading rhizomes and stolons, which are bright yellow, as are the roots. The soft, green leaves are 3 to 15 cm (1 to 6 in) long and are borne oppositely on an erect, wiry, green stem. The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate base, and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth longer than adjacent laterals. It bears small, greenish or brownish, numerous flowers in dense axillary inflorescences. The leaves and stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs, and in most subspecies, also bear many stinging hairs (trichomes or spicules), whose tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a needle that can inject several chemicals causing a painful sting or paresthesia, giving the species its common names: stinging nettle, burn nettle, burn weed, or burn hazel. [3] [5] [4]

The taxonomy of Nettle species has been confused, and older sources are likely to use a variety of systematic names for these plants. Formerly, more species were recognized than are now accepted. However, at least six clear subspecies of U. dioica are described, some formerly classified as separate species:

  • U. dioica subsp. dioecious (European stinging nettle), from Europe, Asia, and northern Africa, has stinging hairs.
  • U. dioica subsp. galeopsifolia (fen nettle or stingless nettle), from Europe, does not have stinging hairs.
  • U. dioica subsp. Afghan, from southwestern and central Asia, sometimes has stinging hairs or is sometimes hairless. [8]
  • U. dioica subsp. gansuensis, from eastern Asia (China), has stinging hairs. [8]
  • U. dioica subsp. gracilis (Ait.) Selander (American stinging nettle), from North America, has stinging hairs and is monoecious.
  • U. dioica subsp. holosericea (Nutt.) Thorne (hoary stinging nettle), from North America, has stinging hairs and is monoecious. [9]

Other species' names formerly accepted as distinct by some authors but now regarded as synonyms of one or other subspecies include U. breweri, U. californica, U. cardiophylla, U. lyalli, U. major, U. procera, U. serra, U. strigosissima, U. trachycarpa, and U. viridis.

Urtica dioica is considered to be native to Europe, much of temperate Asia and western North Africa. [1] It is abundant in northern Europe and much of Asia, usually found in the countryside. It is less widespread in southern Europe and north Africa, where it is restricted by its need for moist soil, but is still common. It has been introduced to many other parts of the world. In North America, it is widely distributed in Canada and the United States, where it is found in every province and state except for Hawaii, and also can be found in northernmost Mexico. It grows in abundance in the Pacific Northwest, especially in places where annual rainfall is high. The European subspecies has been introduced into Australia, North America and South America. [10] [11]

In Europe, nettles have a strong association with human habitation and buildings. The presence of nettles may indicate the site of a long-abandoned building, and can also indicate soil fertility. [12] Human and animal waste may be responsible for elevated levels of phosphate [13] and nitrogen in the soil, providing an ideal environment for nettles.

Nettles are the larval food plant for several species of butterflies, such as the peacock butterfly, [14] comma (Polygonia c-album), and the small tortoiseshell. It is also eaten by the larvae of some moths including angle shades, buff ermine, dot moth, the flame, the gothic, gray chi, gray pug, lesser broad-bordered yellow underwing, mouse moth, setaceous Hebrew character, and small angle shades . The roots are sometimes eaten by the larva of the ghost moth (Hepialus humuli).

Stinging nettle is particularly found as an understory plant in wetter environments, but it is also found in meadows. Although nutritious, it is not widely eaten by either wildlife or livestock, presumably because of the sting. It spreads by abundant seeds and also by rhizomes, and is often able to survive and re-establish quickly after fire. [15]

Urtica dioica produces its inflammatory effect on skin (stinging, burning sensation often called "contact urticaria") both by impaling the skin via spicules - causing mechanical irritation - and by biochemical irritants, such as histamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, among other chemicals. [5] [16] [17] [18] [19] Anti-itch drugs, usually in the form of creams containing antihistamines or hydrocortisone, may provide relief from nettle dermatitis. [5] The term, contact urticaria, has a wider use in dermatology, involving dermatitis caused by various skin irritants and pathogens. [20] Dock leaves, which often grow in similar habitats, are regarded as a folk remedy to counteract the sting of a nettle, [21] although there is no evidence of any chemical effect. It may be that the act of rubbing a dock leaf against a nettle sting acts as a distracting counterstimulation, or that belief in the dock's effect provides a placebo effect. [22]

In Great Britain and Ireland, the stinging nettle (U. dioica subsp. dioecious) is the only common stinging plant and has found a place in several figures of speech in the English language. Shakespeare's Hotspur urges that "out of this nettle, danger, we pluck this flower, safety" (Henry IV, part 1, Act II Scene 3). The figure of speech "to grasp the nettle" probably originated from Aesop's fable "The Boy and the Nettle". [23] In Seán O'Casey's Juno and the Paycock, one of the characters quotes Aesop "Gently touch a nettle and it'll sting you for your pains / Grasp it as a lad of mettle and soft as silk remains". The metaphor may refer to the fact that if a nettle plant is grasped firmly rather than brushed against, it does not sting so readily, because the hairs are crushed down flat and do not penetrate the skin so easily. [24]

In the German language, the idiom sich in die Nesseln setzen, or to sit in nettles, means to get into trouble. In Hungarian, the idiom csalánba nem üt a mennykő, the thunderbolt does not strike into nettle, means bad people escape trouble or the devil looks after his own. [25] The same idiom exists in the Serbian language - неће гром у коприве. In Dutch, a netelige situatie means a predicament. In French, the idiom faut pas pousser mémé dans les orties (don't push grandma in the nettles) means that we should be careful not to abuse a situation. The name urticaria for hives comes from the Latin name of nettle (Nettle, from urere, to burn).

The English word 'nettled', meaning irritated or angry, is derived from 'nettle'. [26]

There is a common idea in Great Britain that the nettle was introduced by the Romans. [27] The idea was mentioned by William Camden in his book Britannia of 1586. [28] However, in 2011, an early Bronze Age burial cist on Whitehorse Hill, [29] [30] Dartmoor, Devon was excavated. The cist dated from between 1730 and 1600 BC. It contained various high value beads as well as fragments of a sash made from nettle fiber. It is possible that the sash was traded from mainland Europe, but perhaps more probable that it was locally made.

Culinary use Edit

U. dioica has a flavor similar to spinach mixed with cucumber when cooked, and is rich in vitamins A and C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium. Young plants were harvested by Native Americans and used as a cooked plant in spring when other food plants were scarce. [31] Soaking stinging nettles in water or cooking removes the stinging chemicals from the plant, which allows them to be handled and eaten without injury. [32] After the stinging nettle enters its flowering and seed-setting stages, the leaves develop gritty particles called cystoliths, which can irritate the urinary tract. [31] In its peak season, nettle contains up to 25% protein, dry weight, which is high for a leafy green vegetable. [33] The leaves are also dried and may then be used to make a herbal tea, as can also be done with the nettle's flowers.

Nettles can be used in a variety of recipes, such as polenta, pesto, and purée. [34] Nettle soup is a common use of the plant, particularly in Northern and Eastern Europe.

Nettles are sometimes used in cheesemaking, for example in the production of Cornish Yarg [35] and as a flavoring in varieties of Gouda. [36]

Nettles are used in Albania as part of the dough filling for the börek pastry. The top baby leaves are selected and simmered, then mixed with other ingredients such as herbs and rice, before being used as a filling between dough layers. [37] [38] Similarly, in Greece the tender leaves are often used, after simmering, as a filling for hortopita, which is similar to spanakopita, but with wild greens rather than spinach for filling. [39]

Competitive eating Edit

In the UK, an annual World Nettle Eating Championship draws thousands of people to Dorset, where competitors attempt to eat as much of the raw plant as possible. Competitors are given 60 cm (24 in) stalks of the plant, from which they strip the leaves and eat them. Whoever strips and eats the most stinging nettle leaves in a fixed time is the winner. The competition dates back to 1986, when two neighboring farmers attempted to settle a dispute about which had the worst infestation of nettles, and one of them said, 'I'll eat any nettle of yours that's longer than mine.' [40] [41]

Beverage use Edit

Alcoholic beer can be made from young nettles. [42]

Traditional medicine Edit

As Old English stiðe, nettle is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in 10th century traditional medicine. Nettle was believed to be a galactagogue - a substance that promotes lactation. [43] Urtication, or flogging with nettles is the process of deliberately applying stinging nettles to the skin to provoke inflammation. An agent thus used was considered to be a rubefacient (something that causes redness), used as a folk remedy for treating rheumatism. [44]

Chastisement Edit

In indigenous justice systems in Ecuador, urtication was used as punishment for severe crimes in 2010. The sentenced perpetrator of a crime was flogged with stinging nettle, in public, naked, whilst being showered with freezing cold water. [45]

Textiles and fiber Edit

Nettle stems contain a bast fiber that has been traditionally used for the same purposes as linen and is produced by a similar retting process. Unlike cotton, nettles grow easily without pesticides. The fibers are coarser, however. [46]

Historically, nettles have been used to make clothing for almost 3,000 years, as ancient nettle textiles from the Bronze Age have been found in Denmark. [47] It is widely believed that German Army uniforms were almost all made from nettle during World War I due to a potential shortage of cotton, although there is little evidence to support this. [48] ​​More recently, companies in Austria, Germany, and Italy have started to produce commercial nettle textiles. [49] [50]

The fiber content in nettle shows a high variability and reaches from below 1% to 17%. Under middle-European conditions, stems yield typically between 45 and 55 dt / ha (decitons per hectare), which is comparable to flax stem yield. Due to the variable fiber content, the fiber yields vary between 0.2 and 7 dt / ha, but the yields are normally in the range between 2 and 4 dt / ha. [51] Fiber varieties are normally cloning varieties and therefore planted from vegetative propagated plantlets. Direct seeding is possible, but leads to great heterogeneity in maturity. [52]

Nettles may be used as a dye-stuff, producing yellow from the roots, or yellowish green from the leaves. [53]

Feed Edit

Nutrient contents Edit

Fresh leaves contain approximately 82.4% water, 17.6% dry matter, 5.5% protein, 0.7 to 3.3% fat, and 7.1% carbohydrates. [54] Mature leaves contain about 40% α- linolenic acid, a valuable omega-3 acid. [55] For exact fatty acid contents see Table 1. Seeds contain much more fatty acid than leaves. [55]

Fatty acids (% of saponifiable oil)

Minerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, Si, S, Cl) and trace elements (Ti, 80 ppm, [56] Mn, Cu, Fe) contents depend mostly on the soil and the season. [54]

Carotenoids can be found primarily in the leaves, where different forms of lutein, xanthophyll and carotene are present (Table 2). Some carotenes are precursors of vitamin A (retinol), their retinol equivalents RE or retinol activity equivalents per g dry weight are 1.33 for mature leaves and 0.9 for young leaves. [54] Nettle contains much less carotenes and retinol than carrots, which contain 8.35 RE per g fresh weight. [57] Depending on the batch and the leave and stem content, nettle contains only traces of zeaxanthin or between 20 - 60 mg / kg of dry matter. [54] [58] Nettle contains ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pantothenic acid, vitamin K1 [54] and tocopherols (vitamin E). [58] The highest vitamin contents can be found in the leaves. [54]

Table 2: Carotenoid concentration of leaves of U. dioica (μg / g dry weight). [55]
Standard deviations are given in brackets.
Mature leaves Young leaves
Total identified carotenoids 74.8 51.4
Xanthophylls Neoxanthin 5.0 (± 0.2) 2.6 (± 0.2) 0
Violaxanthin 11.0 (± 0.2) 7.2 (± 0.6)
Zeaxanthin traces traces
β-cryptoxanthin traces traces
Luteins 13-Are you there-lutein 0.4 (± 0.0) 0.4 (± 0.0)
13’-Are you there-lutein 8.4 (± 0.4) 5.0 (± 0.6)
All-trans-lutein 32.4 (± 1.0) 23.6 (± 0.8)
9-Are you there-lutein 1.2 (± 0.2) 1.0 (± 0.2)
9’-Are you there-lutein 4.4 (± 0.4) 3.4 (± 0.6)
Carotenes All-trans-β-carotene 5.6 (± 0.7) 3.8 (± 0.3)
β-carotene-Are you there-isomers 4.8 (± 0.2) 3.2 (± 0.2)
Lycopene 1.6 (± 0.1) 1.2 (± 0.1)
Retinol equivalent RE / g dry wt 1.33 (± 0.3) 0.90 (± 0.3)

Poultry: Egg yolk coloring in laying hens Edit

In laying hens, nettle can be used as an egg yolk colorant instead of artificial pigments or other natural pigments (derived from marigold for yellow). Nettle has high carotenoid contents, especially lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin, of which lutein and zeaxanthin act as yellow pigments. [58] [59] [60] Feeding as little as 6.25 g dry nettle per kg feed is as effective as the synthetic pigments to color the egg yolk. Feeding nettle has no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying hens or the general egg quality. [58]

Ruminants Edit

Ruminants avoid fresh stinging nettles, however if the nettles are wilted or dry, voluntary intake can be high. [ citation needed ]

Table 3: Contents of ryegrass and nettle silage [61]
(g / kg dry matter, if not stated otherwise)
Ryegrass silage Nettle silage
Dry matter DM 235 415
Metabolizable energy (MJ / kg DM) MYSELF 11.3 9.8
Crude protein CP 177 171
Neutral detergent fiber NDF 536 552
Acid detergent fiber ADF 338 434
Starch - -
Ash 113 118

Gardening Edit

Nettles have a number of other uses in the vegetable garden, including the potential for encouraging beneficial insects. Since nettles prefer to grow in phosphorus-rich and nitrogen rich soils that have recently been disturbed (and thus aerated), the growth of nettles is an indicator that an area has high fertility (especially phosphate and nitrate), and thus is an indicator to gardeners as to the quality of the soil. [62] [63] [ failed verification ]

Nettles contain nitrogenous compounds, so are used as a compost activator [64] or can be used to make a liquid fertilizer, which although low in phosphate, is useful in supplying magnesium, sulfur, and iron. [65] [66] They are also one of the few plants that can tolerate, and flourish in, soils rich in poultry droppings.

The stinging nettle is the Red Admiral caterpillar's primary host plant and can attract migrating Red Admiral butterflies to a garden. [67] U. dioica can be a troubling weed, and mowing can increase plant density. [68] Regular and persistent tilling will greatly reduce its numbers, and the use of herbicides such as 2,4-D and glyphosate are effective control measures. [68]

Sowing and planting Edit

Three cultivation techniques can be used for the stinging nettle: 1) direct sowing, 2) growing seedlings in nurseries with subsequent transplantation and 3) vegetative propagation via stolons or head cuttings. [69]

  1. Direct sowing: The seedbed should have a loose and fine structure, but should be reconsolidated using a packer roller imminently prior to sowing. [70] Sowing time can be either in autumn [71] or in spring. [72] Seed density should be 6 kg / ha with row spacing of 30 centimetres (12 in) and 42–50 cm in autumn and spring, respectively. [70] [71] [73] The disadvantage of direct sowing is that it usually leads to incomplete plant coverage. [70] [73] This drawback can be mitigated by covering the seedbed with a transparent perforated foil in order to improve seed germination. [70] [71] Further, weed control can be problematic as the stinging nettle has a slow seedling development time. [70]
  2. Growing seedlings: For this technique pre-germinated seeds are sown between mid- / end-February and beginning of April and grown in nurseries. Seedlings are grown in tuffs with 3-5 plants / tuff and a seed density of 1.2-1.6 kg / 1000 tuffs. A fastened germination is achieved by alternating high temperature during daytime (30 ° C for 8 h) and lower temperature during nighttime (20 ° C for 16 h). [70] [73] Before transplanting, the seedlings should be fertilized and acclimated to cold temperatures. [70] Transplantation should start around Mid-April with row spacing of 42–50 centimeters (17–20 in) and plant spacing within rows of 25–30 cm. [72] [73]
  3. Vegetative propagation: Stolons (with several buds) of 10 cm should be planted from mid-April in a depth of 5–7 centimeters (2.0–2.8 in). [72] Head cuttings are grown in nurseries starting between mid-May and mid-June. Growing tips with two leaf-pairs are cut from the mother plant and treated with root-growth inducing hormones. Transplantation can be delayed in comparison to the growing seedling technique. [70]

The stinging nettle can also be grown in controlled-environment agriculture systems, such as soil-less medium cultivations or aeroponics, which may achieve higher yields, standardize quality, and reduce harvesting costs and contamination. [74]

Nettle is derived from a Latin word meaning 'sting'. [75]

Dioica is derived from Greek, meaning 'of two houses' (having separate staminate and pistillate plants dioecious). [75]


Nettle

Nettle (Lombard: Ortiga [urˈtiːɡa]) is a district (Neighborhood) of Milan, Italy, located within the Zone 3 administrative division. The district used to be a fraction of Lambrate when the latter was an autonomous common after Lambrate was annexed to Milan, in 1923, Lambrate and Ortica came to be referred to as distinct districts.

The name Nettle comes from vegetable garden, referring to a small market garden, as the river Lambro, traversing both Lambrate and Ortica, has been long used for the irrigation of small cultivated areas.

Nettle housed at railway station, called Lambrate station, from 1896 to 1931 the station was later moved to another location in Lambrate proper (now Lambrate district).

Enzo Jannacci, the famous Milanese singer-songwriter, mentions Ortica in his song He made the stake ("he was the lookout"), dedicated to some "Gang of the Ortica" (Nettle band).

This article on a location in the Province of Milan is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Nettle is a green chopper which is decorated like a mammoth skeleton. When Lenny bought it (or probably stole it), he and his associated pet (Wolfgang) souped-up it into a very powerful and fast motorcycle. Nettle is characterized by the two Purple flags on the spikes on the back of the chopper.

Because Lenny and Yucca are Elves and hence have no wings, they use the chopper like the Pixies use their wings. Nettle has been destroyed

several times in PopPixie, but Lenny and Wolfgang always rebuild it. Lenny adores a challenge and takes on impossible races that he comes out of with a few broken bones but happy.

Lenny and Ortica (right) together with Rex and Venom (left)

Lenny also used Nettle at "The Pixieville Grand Prix". But he crashed by hitting a billboard together with Rex. It's Lenny's dream to prove that his chopper is better than Venom: the chopper of Rex.


Video: The Beatles - Dont Let Me Down